NOTES!
in Room 213!




Motion & Energy...
1 [LINK]: PHYSICS4KIDS (motion)
[LINK]: energizer.com [Science Center]...
[LINK]: energizer.com [Learning Center]...
[LINK]: energizer.com [How Flashights Work]...
[LINK]: energizer.com [How Batteries Work]...
[LINK]: edhelper.com
2 Every object in the universe that has mass exerts a gravitational pull, or force, on every other mass. The size of the pull depends on the masses of the objects. You exert a gravitational force on the people around you, but that force isn't very strong, since people aren't very massive. When you look at really large masses, like the Earth and Moon, the gravitational pull becomes very impressive. The gravitational force between the Earth and the molecules of gas in the atmosphere is strong enough to hold the atmosphere close to our surface. Smaller planets, that have less mass, may not be able to hold an atmosphere.
3 People always say, "What about feathers? They fall so slowly." Obviously, there is air all around us. When a feather falls, it falls slowly because the air is in its way. There is a lot of air resistance and that resistance makes the feather move slower. The forces at work are the same. If you dropped a feather in a container with no air (a vacuum), it would drop as fast as a baseball.
4 Velocity and speed are very similar ideas, but velocity is a vector, and speed is not. Suppose we knew that someone was driving at thirty-five kilometers an hour (35 km/hr), but the direction wasn't given. How would you draw an arrow to represent a vector? You can't know how to draw the vector if you only have one value (either amount or direction). In this example, you were never told about the direction. Physicists would say that the speed is thirty-five kilometers an hour (35 km/hr), but the velocity is unknown. On the other hand, if you're moving at 35 km/hr in a northern direction, then you would have an arrow pointing north with a length of 35. Physicists would say that the velocity is 35 km/hr north.
5 Newton's Laws of Motion
There was this fellow in England named Sir Isaac Newton. A little bit stuffy, bad hair, but quite an intelligent guy. He worked on developing calculus and physics at the same time. During his work, he came up with the three basic ideas that are applied to the physics of most motion (NOT modern physics). The ideas have been tested and verified so many times over the years, that scientists now call them Newton's Three Laws of Motion.
6 First Law:
The first law says that an object at rest tends to stay at rest, and an object in motion tends to stay in motion, with the same direction and speed. Motion (or lack of motion) cannot change without an unbalanced force acting. If nothing is happening to you, and nothing does happen, you will never go anywhere. If you're going in a specific direction, unless something happens to you, you will always go in that direction. Forever.
You can see good examples of this idea when you see video footage of astronauts. Have you ever noticed that their tools float? They can just place them in space and they stay in one place. There is no interfering force to cause this situation to change. The same is true when they throw objects for the camera. Those objects move in a straight line. If they threw something when doing a spacewalk, that object would continue moving in the same direction and with the same speed unless interfered with; for example, if a planet's gravity pulled on it (Note: This is a really really simple way of descibing a big idea. You will learn all the real details - and math - when you start taking more advanced classes in physics.).
7 Second Law:
The second law says that the acceleration of an object produced by a net (total) applied force is directly related to the magnitude of the force, the same direction as the force, and inversely related to the mass of the object (inverse is a value that is one over another number... the inverse of 2 is 1/2). The second law shows that if you exert the same force on two objects of different mass, you will get different accelerations (changes in motion). The effect (acceleration) on the smaller mass will be greater (more noticeable). The effect of a 10 newton force on a baseball would be much greater than that same force acting on a truck. The difference in effect (acceleration) is entirely due to the difference in their masses.
8 Third Law:
The third law says that for every action (force) there is an equal and opposite reaction (force). Forces are found in pairs. Think about the time you sit in a chair. Your body exerts a force downward and that chair needs to exert an equal force upward or the chair will collapse. It's an issue of symmetry. Acting forces encounter other forces in the opposite direction. There's also the example of shooting a cannonball. When the cannonball is fired through the air (by the explosion), the cannon is pushed backward. The force pushing the ball out was equal to the force pushing the cannon back, but the effect on the cannon is less noticeable because it has a much larger mass. That example is similar to the kick when a gun fires a bullet forward.
9 Kinetic and potential energies are found in all objects. If an object is moving, it is said to have kinetic energy (KE). Potential energy (PE) is energy that is "stored" because of the position and/or arrangement of the object. The classic example of potential energy is to pick up a brick. When it's on the ground, the brick had a certain amount of energy. When you pick it up, you apply force and lift the object. You did work. That work added energy to the brick. Once the brick is in a higher/new position, we would say that the increased energy was stored in the brick as PE. Now the brick can do something it couldn't do before; it can fall. And in falling, can exert forces and do work on other objects.
10 What is ENERGY?
TWO CATEGORIES (KINDS) of ENERGY:
Potential Energy: is stored energy and the energy of position — gravitational energy. Kinetic Energy: is motion — of waves, molecules, objects, substances, and objects.
11 FORMS of ENERGY
Energy is found in different forms including light, heat, chemical, and motion.

Chemical Energy is energy stored in the bonds of atoms and molecules. Biomass, petroleum, natural gas, and coal are examples of stored chemical energy. Chemical energy is converted to thermal energy when we burn wood in a fireplace or burn gasoline in a car's engine.
Mechanical Energy is energy stored in objects by tension. Compressed springs and stretched rubber bands are examples of stored mechanical energy.

Nuclear Energy is energy stored in the nucleus of an atom — the energy that holds the nucleus together. Very large amounts of energy can be released when the nuclei are combined or split apart. Nuclear power plants split the nuclei of uranium atoms in a process called fission. The sun combines the nuclei of hydrogen atoms in a process called fusion.

Gravitational Energy is energy stored in an object's height. The higher and heavier the object, the more gravitational energy is stored. When you ride a bicycle down a steep hill and pick up speed, the gravitational energy is being converted to motion energy. Hydropower is another example of gravitational energy, where the dam "piles" up water from a river into a reservoir.

Electrical Energy is what is stored in a battery, and can be used to power a cell phone or start a car. Electrical energy is delivered by tiny charged particles called electrons, typically moving through a wire. Lightning is an example of electrical energy in nature, so powerful that it is not confined to a wire.

Radiant Energy is electromagnetic energy that travels in transverse waves. Radiant energy includes visible light, x-rays, gamma rays and radio waves. Light is one type of radiant energy. Sunshine is radiant energy, which provides the fuel and warmth that make life on Earth possible.
Thermal Energy, or heat, is the vibration and movement of the atoms and molecules within substances. As an object is heated up, its atoms and molecules move and collide faster. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy in the Earth.

Motion Energy is energy stored in the movement of objects. The faster they move, the more energy is stored. It takes energy to get an object moving and energy is released when an object slows down. Wind is an example of motion energy. A dramatic example of motion is a car crash, when the car comes to a total stop and releases all its motion energy at once in an uncontrolled instant.
Sound is the movement of energy through substances in longitudinal (compression/rarefaction) waves. Sound is produced when a force causes an object or substance to vibrate — the energy is transferred through the substance in a wave. Typically, the energy in sound is far less than other forms of energy.
12 ?
13 ?
14 [LINK]: How Stuff Works (gravity)
[LINK]: Your Weight on Other Worlds!
[LINK]: Use a Ruler
15 [LINK]: School of Champions
[LINK]: Physics Classroom
[LINK]: Gravity Simulation with anvil
[LINK]: Sir Issac Newton's Law of Motions Song! + [MORE]
[LINK]: Forces Exercise