NOTES!
in Room 213!




Energy... [LINK]: energy [LINK]: resources
1 Energy: the ability to do work.
2 Work is defined as when a force causes an object to move in the direction of the force.
3 Work is a transfer of energy.
4 In a tennis ball serve, player does work on racket, racket does work on ball, ball does work on net.
5 Energy and work are expressed in units called joules (J).
6 Energy of motion is called kinetic energy. All moving objects have kinetic energy. Kinetic energy can be used to do work.
7 Kinetic energy is determined by mass & speed.
Convert to metrics at [LINK]: calculateme.com
8 The equation for finding an object's kinetic energy is:
Kinetic energy equals M V squared/2. [LINK]: kinetic energy... [PENCAST]...
9 Speed has a greater effect on kinetic energy than mass does.
10 A car has four times the kinetic energy of an identical car going half as fast.
11 The energy an object has because of its position is called potential energy.
12 Energy stored in rubber bands, springs, or bowstrings is called elastic potential energy.
13 Work must be done to stretch a bow from its orginal shape and create potential energy.
14 A backpack on your back has gravitational potential energy because you have lifted it against gravity to a higher position.
15 Work = force x distance. Convert to metrics at [LINK]: calculateme.com
16 Mechanical energy is the amount of work and object can do because of its kinetic and potential energies. Mechanical energy is total energy of motion & position of the object.
17 The equation for finding an object's gravitational potential energy is:
gravitational potential energy equals weight x height.
18 The equation for finding an object's mechanical energy is:
mechanical energy equals potential energy plus kinetic energy.
19 Gravitational potential energy is expressed in newton-meters (N•m).
20 An object's gravitational potential energy is equal to the amount of work (J) done to lift an object to a certain height.
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25 [PENCAST]: Kinetic & Potential Energy Formulas (11.18.10)
31 [LINK]: Energy Quest
[LINK]: Energy Quest: The Energy Story
[LINK]: Energy Quest: Devoured by the Dark
[LINK]: Energy Quest: links
32 [LINK]: energy efficiency
[LINK]: water & energy conservation
[LINK]: think beyond recycling
[LINK]: carbon calculator
33 [LINK]: U.S. Department of Energy
[LINK]: energy videos
[LINK]: Energy Kids
[LINK]: Energy Kids: forms of energy
34 Energy is the ability to do work on matter. The work done is manifested in a variety of ways. Matter can be pushed, pulled, or lifted over distance when energy is applied. In other words, work done on matter implies a change of position or movement. Potential energy is the energy of position. A block of rock attached to a high cliff face has substantial potential energy due to its position above the ground. When it breaks away from the cliff and falls to the surface potential energy is converted into kinetic energy of motion. When the rock hits the ground, kinetic energy is converted into work when it dislodges surface material. 
Heat or, thermal energy is the total energy associated with random atomic and molecular motions of a substance. Heat is transferred in three ways. Radiation is the transfer of energy via electromagnetic waves. Radiation does not need an intervening medium to pass heat energy from the emitter to the absorber. When radiation from the Sun is absorbed by the Earth it does work by setting molecules in motion and raising their kinetic energy level.  In a solid, the molecules may vibrate more rapidly and collide with one another and transfer heat from warmer to colder portions of the mass by conduction. Though conduction is typically thought of occurring within a solid, it can occur between a solid and a fluid. When air, a fluid, comes in contact with the ground, a solid, heat can be transferred through molecular collisions. In fluids like air and water, heat is transferred by the circulation of molecules via the process of convection. Convection implies a vertical transfer of heat, like that which is occurs in a heated pot of water. As water warms it circulates to the surface. The same is true for air. When air is heated by the earth's surface it too circulates upward. While convection is applied to vertical transfer of heat, advection is a term that is applied to the horizontal transfer of heat by the wind.
Don't confuse temperature and heat, they are not the same thing. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy level of a substance, in other words, the degree of hotness or coldness. Heat is the total energy associated with the motion of molecules while temperature is the average energy level. A boiling pan of water has a higher temperature than a tepid bathtub of water, but the tub contains more heat because there is more mass.
The calorie is a unit of measurement for heat. A calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water through 1oC. Energy is  expressed in terms of joules. One joule is the equivalent of one watt of power radiated or dissipated for one second. Specific heat is the heat required to raise the temperature of one unit substance (e.g., gram) through a particular temperature interval (1oC, for example). The specific heat of water is 1 calorie/gram °C = 4.186 joule/gram °C which is higher than any other common substance on Earth. This is one reason why large bodies of water play such an important role in the heat budget of the Earth system. Radiation is often measured in watts per meter2 or langleys per minute.
35 It has been categorized to all forms of energy. There are various forms of energy to transfer in it. It has potential energy, kinetic, thermal, magnetic, electrical, chemical, nuclear, gravitational, radiant energy, light energy and sound energy. There are two primary groups for the energy form. They are potential and kinetic energy. Some forms of energy based on the work done beside the force with position of that object.
36 If a rock is pushed off a cliff, potential energy is converted into kinetic energy. Potential energy is the energy a piece of matter has because of its position. (That is position in a gravitational, magnetic or electrical field.) Kinetic energy is the energy an object has due to its movement.
Observations made in the 19th century led to the conclusion that energy cannot be created or destroyed - just converted to other forms. This is known as the first law of thermodynamics or conservation of energy. Thus it is impossible to make a so called perpetual motion machine or a machine which generates energy.
Like the wind, it is impossible to see electrical energy, however its effects can be observed. (Try touching an electric fence - you will become aware of the energy very quickly!) Every day you use equipment which converts between energy types. For example a light bulb converts electrical energy to light energy. A car converts chemical energy to kinetic energy.

37 [LINK]: Energy Forms (A)
[LINK]: Energy Forms (B)
[LINK]: Energy Forms (C)
[LINK]: Energy Forms (D)

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