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ROCKETRY




[LINK]: Rocket Day
[LINK]: Rockets


Room 213
Mr. P's Class • Room 213 • Meigs Magnet School • May 2013
Rocketry
LINKS
1 [PPT] [PDF] PPT #1
2 [PPT] [PDF] PPT #2
3 [PPT] [PDF] PPT #3
4 [PPT] [PDF] PPT #4
5 [PPT] [PDF] PPT #5
6 [PPT] [PDF] PPT #6
7 [PPT] [PDF] PPT #7
8 [PPT] [PDF] PPT #8
9 [PPT] [PDF] PPT #9
10 [PPT] [PDF] PPT #10
11 [PPT] [PDF] PPT #11
12 [PPT] [PDF] PPT #12
13 [PPT] [PDF] PPT #13
14 [LINK] PPT #14
15 [LINK] Mr. P's [Retro] Rocket Web
16 [LINK] NASA PPT Website
17 [LINK] [www.physicsclassroom.com]
NOTES
1 Components:
Rockets consist of a propellant, a place to put propellant (such as a propellant tank), and a nozzle. They may also have one or more rocket engines, directional stabilization devices (such as fins, vernier engines or engine gimbals for thrust vectoring, or gyroscopes) and a structure to hold these components together. Rockets intended for high speed atmospheric use also have an aerodynamic nose cone, which usually holds the payload.
As well as these components, rockets can have any number of other components, such as wings (rocketplanes), parachutes, and wheels (rocket cars). Vehicles frequently possess navigation systems and guidance systems which typically use satellite navigation and inertial navigation systems.
2 Engines (Motors):
Rocket engines employ the principle of jet propulsion. The rocket engines powering rockets come in a great variety of different types. Most current rockets are chemically powered rockets (usually internal combustion engines) that emit a hot exhaust gas. A rocket engine can use gas propellants, solid propellant, liquid propellant, or a hybrid mixture of both solid and liquid. Some rockets use heat or pressure that is supplied from a source other than the chemical reaction of propellants, such as steam rockets, solar thermal rockets, nuclear thermal rocket engines or simple pressurized rockets such as water rocket or cold gas thrusters. With combustive propellants a chemical reaction is initiated between the fuel and the oxidizer in the combustion chamber, and the resultant hot gases accelerate out of a rocket engine nozzle (or nozzles) at the rearward-facing end of the rocket. The acceleration of these gases through the engine exerts force ("thrust") on the combustion chamber and nozzle, propelling the vehicle (according to Newton's Third Law).
3 Propellant:
Rocket propellant is mass that is stored, usually in some form of propellant tank or casing, prior to being used as the propulsive mass that is ejected from a rocket engine in the form of a fluid jet to produce thrust. For chemical rockets often the propellants are a fuel such as liquid hydrogen or kerosene which is burned with an oxidizer such as liquid oxygen or nitric acid to produce large volumes of very hot gas. The oxidiser is either kept separate and mixed in the combustion chamber, or comes premixed, as with solid rockets.
Sometimes the propellant is not burned but still undergoes a chemical reaction, and can be a 'monopropellant' such as hydrazine, nitrous oxide or hydrogen peroxide that can be catalytically decomposed to hot gas.
Alternatively, an inert propellant can be used that can be externally heated, such as in steam rocket, solar thermal rocket or nuclear thermal rockets.
For smaller, low performance, rockets such as attitude control thrusters where high performance is less necessary, a pressurised fluid is used as propellant that simply escapes the spacecraft through a propelling nozzle.
4 Forces on a Rocket in Flight:

Flying rockets are primarily affected by the following:
1. Thrust from the engine...
2. Gravity from celestial bodies...
3. Drag if moving in atmosphere...
4. Lift; usually relatively small effect except for rocket-powered aircraft...

Rockets that must travel through the air are usually tall and thin as this shape minimizes drag.
The general study of the forces on a rocket or other spacecraft is called astrodynamics.
In addition, the inertia and centrifugal force can be significant due to the path of the rocket around the center of a celestial body; when high enough speeds in the right direction and altitude are achieved a stable orbit or escape velocity is obtained.
5 [LINK] NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC: Rockets
6 [LINK] TED TALKS: Model Rockets
7 [LINK] YOU TUBE: All About Rocketry #1
8 [LINK] YOU TUBE: All About Rocketry #2
9 [LINK] YOU TUBE: All About Rocketry #3
10 [LINK] YOU TUBE: How Rockets Work #1
11 [LINK] YOU TUBE: How Rockets Work #2
12 [LINK] YOU TUBE: How Rockets Work #3
13 [LINK] YOU TUBE: How Rockets Work #4
14 [LINK] YOU TUBE: How Rockets Work #5
15 [LINK] YOU TUBE: NASA
16 [LINK] YOU TUBE: Saturn V (#1)
17 [LINK] YOU TUBE: Saturn V (#2)
18 [LINK] YOU TUBE: Space Shuttle
19 [LINK] YOU TUBE: ISS #1
20 [LINK] YOU TUBE: ISS #2
21 [LINK] YOU TUBE: ISS #3
22 [LINK] YOU TUBE: ISS #4
23 [LINK] YOU TUBE: ISS #5
24 [LINK] YOU TUBE: ISS #6
25 [LINK] YOU TUBE: ISS #7
26 [LINK] YOU TUBE: ISS #8
27

PICTURES/DIAGRAMS
1
The Forces on a Rocket...
2
A Rocket Missile Launch:
The Soyuz Rocket...
3
Rocket Launch...
4
May 16, 2011: Endeavour's final launch
We watched live in our class...
(from Katie Couric's Twitter)
5
May 16, 2011: Endeavour's final launch
We watched live in our class...
(from Katie Couric's Twitter)
6
The Apollo Mission Saturn V Rocket en route
7
Space Shuttle Atlantis
8 [LINK]
Space Shuttle Atlantis preparing for its final flight.
9
Space Shuttle Endeavour on its final flight.
10 [LINK]
Space Shuttle Endeavour on its final flight.
11 [LINK]
Space Shuttle Endeavour docked with the ISS. We can view it in the night sky on the wee morning hours of Tuesday, May 24.
12
Space Shuttle Endeavour docked with the ISS - an upclose shot.
13 [LINK]
Space Shuttle Endeavour docked with the ISS - astronaunt working.
14
Space Shuttle Endeavour!
15
Space Shuttle Endeavour at the Pad!
16
The Obamas Visit Space Shuttle Atlantis!
17
Space Shuttle Astronauts!
18 [LINK]
Space Walk!
15 [LINK]
From Mr. P's iPad:
The forces acting upon a rocket in flight.

Recall why the black arrow is much thicker.
ASSIGNMENTS
05.17.11 Tech Task...
05.18.11 Check out PPT...
05.19.11 Take-Home Quiz...